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Rosacea Glossaries/Dictionaries

UVA (Ultraviolet A)


Allantoin is a crystalline compound formed in the nitrogen metabolism of many mammals (excluding primates)., but may also be synthesized in a laboratory.

A cyclic compound related to hydantoin, its chemical formula is: C 4 H 6 N 4 O 3.


Mid 19th cent.: from allantois (because it was discovered in the allantoic fluid of cows) + -in 1 .


Angiogenesis refers to the formation of new blood vessels (capillaries).


An anti-inflammatory is any substance which prevents inflammation, both readily visible in the form of facial redness, and only discernible by microscopic blood analysis or other tests (subclinical inflammation).

Both forms of this "redness" are clinically significant.

Chronic inflammatory processes are increasingly regarded as key factors behind skin aging and worsening rosacea.

The primary cause of subclinical skin inflammation in rosacea patients is most commonly unprotected, routine daily exposure to daylight.

Rosacea sunscreens and antioxidants, used in combination can provide close to 100% protection against UVA/UVB-induced inflammation.

Either used alone is only approximately 50% effective — therefore sunscreen use alone in no longer regarded as being an effective therapy.


Antioxidants are molecules (both natural and synthetic) which work to reduce or eliminate the harm posed by pro-inflammatory free radicals.

In other words, antioxidants are anti-inflammatory.

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue is that which connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs, typically having relatively few cells embedded in an amorphous matrix, often with collagen or other fibers, and including cartilaginous, fatty, and elastic tissues.

Erythema (Redness)


Histamine is a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries.

Histamine is a heterocyclic amine.

Its chemical formula is: C 5 H 9 N.


Inflammation is a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot and/or painful, esp. as a reaction to injury or infection.

Lymphatic Circulatory System

The lymphatic circulatory system consists of vessels that carry a clear liquid that bathes the tissues of the body and may fight infection.

Mast Cells

Mast cells are filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other substances during inflammatory and allergic reactions.


Metronidazole is a synthetic drug used originally to treat trichomoniasis and some similar infections, but also used in reducing the symptoms of rosacea, although its mechanism of action is not understood

Metronidazole is a nitro-derivative of imidazole.

Its chemical formula is : C 6 H 9 N 3 O 3.


Mid 20th cent.: from me(thyl) + (ni)tro- + (im)idazole.

Pathogenesis of Rosacea

Rosacea pathogenesis is the manner in which rosacea develops, from early rosacea symptoms to advanced rosacea symptoms.


Photoaging refers to skin aging due to daylight.

We recommend Melbourne Dermatology's overview of photoaging and photoprotection for further information, although not all the sunscreens described.

According to the free radical theory of aging, skin cancer is thought to represent severe photoaging.

Rosacea Biological Glossary

Rosacea Chemisty Glossary

Rosacea Skin Care Ingredient Glossary

Rosacea Treatment Concepts and Issues Glossary

Rosacea and General Medical Terminology

Stratum Corneum


Telangiectasia are visible blood vessels (capillaries).

Author: Peter Wilson.

Reviewed: Thursday, 5 April 2007.


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